Agrochemicals Fungicide Pesticide Thiram 95% Tc White To Cream
Powder CAS 137-26-8
Mol. wt. 240.4 M.f. C6H12N2S4 Form Colourless crystals. M.p. 155-156 ºC V.p. 2.3 mPa (25 ºC) KOW logP = 1.73 Henry 3.3 ´ 10-2 Pa m3 mol-1 S.g./density 1.29 (20 ºC) Solubility In water 18 mg/l (room temperature). In ethanol <10, acetone 80,
chloroform 230 (all in g/l, room temperature). In hexane 0.04,
dichloromethane 170, toluene 18, isopropanol 0.7 (all in g/l, 20
ºC). Stability Decomposed in acidic media. Some deterioration on prolonged
exposure to heat, air or moisture. DT50 (est.) (22 ºC) 128 d (pH 4), 18 d (pH 7), 9 h (pH 9).
Mode of action Basic contact fungicide with protective action. Uses Protective fungicide applied to foliage to control: Botrytis spp. on grapes, soft fruit, lettuce, vegetables and ornamentals;
rust on ornamentals; scab and storage diseases on apples and pears;
leaf curl and Monilia on stone fruit. Used in seed treatments alone or in combination
with added insecticides or fungicides to control damping-off
diseases (e.g. Pythium spp.), and other diseases like Fusarium spp. of maize, cotton, cereals, legumes, vegetables and
ornamentals. Also used as a bird repellent. Formulation types DP; FS; SC; WG; WP; WS; Liquid seed treatment.
Reviews FAO/WHO 65, 67 (see part 2 of the Bibliography). IARC ref. 53 class 3 Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 2600, mice 1500-2000, rabbits 210 mg/kg. Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rabbits >2000 mg/kg. Moderate eye irritant; slight skin
irritant. In percutaneous toxicity test in humans, application of
the dry powder to the skin produced very slight erythema in 9% of
cases. Skin sensitiser (guinea pigs). Inhalation LC50 (4 h) for rats 4.42 mg/l air. NOEL (2 y) for rats 1.5 mg/kg b.w. daily; (1 y) for dogs 0.75 mg/kg b.w.
daily. ADI (JMPR) 0.01 mg/kg b.w. . Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) III; EPA (formulation) III EC classification R68| Xn; R20/22| Xi; R36/37| R43
Birds Acute oral LD50 for male ring-necked pheasants 673, mallard ducks >2800,
starlings >100, redwing blackbirds >100 mg/kg. LC50 (8 d) for ring-necked pheasants >5000, mallard ducks >5000,
bobwhite quail >3950, Japanese quail >5000 ppm. Fish LC50 (96 h) for bluegill sunfish 0.0445, rainbow trout 0.128 mg/l. Daphnia LC50 (48 h) 0.21 mg/l. Algae EC50 (72 h) 0.065 mg/l. Bees LD50 (oral) >2000 mg/bee (80% formulation); (contact) 73.7 mg/bee (75% formulation). Worms LC50 (14 d) 540 mg/kg soil.
EHC 78 (WHO, 1988). Animals Rapid and extensive metabolism. Degradation products are excreted
or integrated into natural constituents. Plants Foliar application results mainly in unchanged thiram. Some
conjugation to the glucoside is observed, followed by further
degradation and incorporation. Application as a seed treatment
results in extensive metabolism with residues incorporated into
natural plant constituents. Soil/Environment DT50 0.5 d (sandy soil, pH 6.7).